filesystems

syslinux creating unexpected partitions on disk image

syslinux creating unexpected partitions on disk image I’m encountering some odd behavior while trying to install a bootloader on a disk image. Here’s the process I followed: $ dd if=/dev/zero of=test.img status=progress bs=200M count=1 1+0 records in 1+0 records out 209715200 bytes (210 MB, 200 MiB) copied, 0.190117 s, 1.1 GB/s $ mkfs.ext2 test.img mke2fs …

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How much space do I need to create a symlink?

How much space do I need to create a symlink? I have a server which contains 1 TB of space. I filled it to capacity; then I wanted to make a symlink. I removed a different symlink, but the server still wasn’t happy – it said I didn’t have any space available. Didn’t I just …

Total answers: 2

Are any modifications to the FHS being worked on (by the Linux Foundation)?

Are any modifications to the FHS being worked on (by the Linux Foundation)? https://unix.stackexchange.com/a/227625/386242 explains the myriad benefits of a simpler and more consistent filesystem hierarchy, but also that without any cross-OS standardization, such efforts are as much of a disadvantage as they are an advantage. Consequently, is the Linux Foundation drafting a Filesystem Hierarchy …

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Why a filesystem is unmounted but still in use?

Why a filesystem is unmounted but still in use? I was using ext4 filesystems for a long time, and it’s the first time I see a weird behavior of ext4 filesystem. There is ext4 filesystem in /dev/dm-2 An I/O error happened in the underlying device, and the filesystem was remounted read-only. It is fine and …

Total answers: 1

What's limiting the depth of a recursive symlink chain?

What's limiting the depth of a recursive symlink chain? Out of curiosity, I ran the following: mkdir haha cd haha ln -s ../haha haha Which created a recursive structure like this: ┌────────┐ V │ haha/ │ haha/────┘ I wanted to see how deep into this I could go, so I typed cd haha/ and held …

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How does EXT4 handle sudden lack of space in the underlying storage?

How does EXT4 handle sudden lack of space in the underlying storage? Usually, block device drivers report correct size of the device, and it is possible to actually use all the "available" blocks. So, the filesystem knows how much it can write to such device in prior.But in some special cases, like it is with …

Total answers: 2

What is the significance of GPT's "Partition Type GUIDs"?

What is the significance of GPT's "Partition Type GUIDs"? When I use cfdisk to create a new partition, I usually change its type to Linux filesystem. There’s multiple types for most operating systems, but a very large number for Linux (architecture-specific for root, /usr, and something called “verity”?). But isn’t /etc/fstab the file that gives …

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Which filesystems support the C attribute?

Which filesystems support the C attribute? On BTRFS filesystems you can disable CoW for a file using the C file attribute, like this: chattr +C filename I expected this to work on ZFS too, since it is also a CoW filesystem, but the attribute cannot be set (maybe ZFS cannot function without CoW). So what …

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What can cause “multiply claimed blocks” on an ext4 drive?

What can cause “multiply claimed blocks” on an ext4 drive? “Multiply claimed blocks” is an error reported by fsck when blocks appear to belong to more than one file. This causes data corruption since both files change when one of the files are written. But what can be the original causes of multiply claimed blocks? …

Total answers: 2

Is traversing a Linux filesystem faster as root

Is traversing a Linux filesystem faster as root When traversing a filesystem with large numbers of files, is it quicker to do so as root compared to any other user? For example, if there are several million files under /data, and /data is owned by user123, would a recursive grep complete more quickly for root …

Total answers: 4

lsblk: Why FSSIZE is not equal to FSAVAIL + FSUSED

lsblk: Why FSSIZE is not equal to FSAVAIL + FSUSED sudo lsblk –fs -o NAME,FSTYPE,SIZE,FSSIZE,FSUSED,FSAVAIL,FSUSE%,MOUNTPOINTS,LABEL,PATH | grep -v ‘^loop’ NAME FSTYPE SIZE FSSIZE FSUSED FSAVAIL FSUSE% MOUNTPOINTS LABEL PATH zram0 8G [SWAP] /dev/zram0 nvme0n1 1.8T /dev/nvme0n1 ├─nvme0n1p1 ext4 768M /dev/nvme0n1p1 ├─nvme0n1p2 ext4 768M 738.4M 240.9M 443.8M 33% /boot FedoraBoot /dev/nvme0n1p2 ├─nvme0n1p3 ext4 768M UnassignedBoot /dev/nvme0n1p3 …

Total answers: 1

What's using all the space on a seemingly empty partition?

What's using all the space on a seemingly empty partition? OS: RHEL8 Filesystem: xfs I’m guessing that some zombie process is holding the space, but I can’t find it. The problem is with /var/lib/pgsql/14, which df says is using 1.1TB of space: $ sudo df -T -xtmpfs -xdevtmpfs -h –sync Filesystem Type Size Used Avail …

Total answers: 2

Why am I not allowed to access files in /usr/bin/?

Why am I not allowed to access files in /usr/bin/? I have this machine. I am the sole user of the machine. I cannot access files in /usr/bin/ because of a location issue with /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/printrun/ and am currently receiving errors. What would be a couple of reasons why I have no permissions for /usr/bin/ on …

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Command-line tool enabling tagging and related tags functionality

Command-line tool enabling tagging and related tags functionality Is there a command-line tool that enables to give a file more attributes than a name? For example, we have a file called ubuntu.pdf and we give it tags like command-line, shell, nautilus, my_favourite_stuff, whatever_else and a file linux.pdf with tags shell, command-line, ln, best_book and than …

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Mount a filesystem in a K8S pod without privileged

Mount a filesystem in a K8S pod without privileged I have a K8S deployment loading a volume as raw block (through volumeDevices): apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment … spec: replicas: 1 … containers: – name: somepod image: ubuntu:latest command: ["sh","-c", "–"] args: ["mount /dev/block /data && while true; do sleep 1000000; done"] securityContext: privileged: true volumeDevices: …

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sshd: Authentication refused: bad ownership or modes for directory /data

sshd: Authentication refused: bad ownership or modes for directory /data I’m trying ssh-ing into a rooted Android phone, but it gives me an error Permission denied (publickey)., and the log says Authentication refused: bad ownership or modes for directory, despite of the fact I have configured the permissions and ownerships carefully and correctly as shown …

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Equivalent of `btrfs send` and `btrfs recv` for bcachefs

Equivalent of `btrfs send` and `btrfs recv` for bcachefs I’m using a setup I consider to be rather fragile and prone to failure involving LUKS, LVM, btrfs, and bcache. I have used btrfs for a long time, and have never experienced any significant issues with it. But, it doesn’t support caching, nor does it handle …

Total answers: 1