Usage of dash (-) in place of a filename

For a command, if using - as an argument in place of a file name will mean STDIN or STDOUT.

  1. But in this example, it creates a file with the name -:

    echo hello > -

    How can I make - in this example mean STDOUT?

  2. Conversely, how can I make - mean a file named - in examples such as:

    cat -
Asked By: Tim


As for 1, the program has to support it. You can’t just arbitrarily use it. As for 2, redirect input from (e.g., cat < -).

Answered By: bahamat

Using - as a filename to mean stdin/stdout is a convention that a lot of programs use. It is not a special property of the filename. The kernel does not recognise - as special so any system calls referring to - as a filename will use - literally as the filename.

With bash redirection, - is not recognised as a special filename, so bash will use that as the literal filename.

When cat sees the string - as a filename, it treats it as a synonym for stdin. To get around this, you need to alter the string that cat sees in such a way that it still refers to a file called -. The usual way of doing this is to prefix the filename with a path – ./-, or /home/Tim/-. This technique is also used to get around similar issues where command line options clash with filenames, so a file referred to as ./-e does not appear as the -e command line option to a program, for example.

Answered By: camh
  1. Instead of echo hello > -, you can use echo hello > /dev/stdout.

    While ‘-‘ is a convention that has to be implemented by each program wanting to support it, /dev/stdin, /dev/stdout and /dev/stderr are, when supported by the OS (at least Solaris, Linux and BSDs do), independent of the application and then will work as you intend.

Answered By: jlliagre

As camh mentioned, - is just a naming convention used by some programs. If you want to refer to these streams with a file descriptor the shell will recognize, jiliagre was correct in having you use the name /dev/stdin or /dev/stdout instead. Those file names should work any place a normal file name would work.

  1. That being said, your first example is kind of silly. Any output that would be caught by the redirect operator to write to a file is already ON standard-output, so redirecting it and writing it back to where it came from is useless. The behavior you use there is the pipe, not a redirect:

    echo hello |
  2. In your second example you simply need to give can some indication that you want a litteral file of that name, not the internal alias it has. You can do this easiest by specifying a path to the file like this:

    cat ./-
Answered By: Caleb

The ‘-‘ approach has a lot of problems. First of all it requires an interpretation of the ‘-‘ character and many programs don’t perform such interpretation. And furthermore, there are some programs that interpret an hyphen as a delimiter marking the end of command line options. The programs are written to work with filename arguments, the ‘-‘ approach is an hack, nice but weak.

The best way is:

$ echo hello > /dev/fd/1

/dev/stdout is a symbolik link of /dev/fd/1

Answered By: b3h3m0th

Special characters have mostly two meanings:

ASCII numeric chart.

Scripting or symbolic.

It’s possible that a single character represents a string, or act as a string. as my understanding.

in C language fopen() function takes two arguments first file stream and the second mode in which file will be open. the mode is a string. even if it’s single character.

cat > "-" works.

Answered By: Owais Qureshi
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